But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used. Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components. When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed. After observing this natural evolution and once the base guideline had been established, the next challenge to be overcome was to check the viability of the method using spontaneously written documents whose exact age was known, such as diaries, laboratory logs and judicial evidence from judicial processes that had been closed. So the team used the same procedure as that used to analyse the samples produced for the research.
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Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those Ink dating in particular is a highly complex challenge in questioned document Analysis: Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK,
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.
The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis. All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e.
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Specifically, this page addresses non-food products clearly used in households across the United States and Canada. These products were also used, of course, by businesses, schools, government offices, and other non-household entities. The “household” aka “personal” bottles category has been used by archaeologists – and collectors to some degree – for many years although the actual bottle types contained within the category varies significantly Herskovitz ; Berge ; Univ.
In the end, there has never been total agreement on the categorization hierarchy of bottle types and probably never will be. The other typology pages e.
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Date codes 2. Nib codes 3. Hallmarks and other markings 4. Condition codes 5. Abbreviation codes. In mid Parker began marking most pens and pencils with a date code, both the barrel and the nibs were marked, but lacking a date code doesn’t necessarily mean that the pen was made pre, since many imprints have been worn off with use. The first date codes, found for example on the Vacumatics, consists of two digits, the first one denoting the quarter of production, the second denoting the production year.
Hence a “47” marking on a ‘s pen indicate that the pen was produced in the fourth quarter of , not , which is a common misconception. In the second quarter of this system was however changed to save production time, and a new date code, using a system of dots, was adopted. The stamp initially had three dots and for each quarter one dot was filed down leaving none for the fourth quarter. Since production was overlapping examples exist with either the imprint 28 or.
Also, since this coding system extended over a decade, a pen marked 38 could be produced the third quarter either in or In a new system for the date coding was introduced where the two digits only indicated the year, not the quarter hence “50” means made in , this system was used in the US until and in Canada a few years longer..
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The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. Where possible non-destructive tests are used. For example inks can be examined using infra red or ultraviolet reflectance at various wavelengths or using visible light but examining emissions from the ink in the infra red area of the spectrum infra red luminescence. Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations.
Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent.
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type. Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers. The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time.
Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document. Handwriting and signatures may change with time and if reasonable volumes of comparison documentation over a period of time from the same individual can be obtained, the quality of writing or writing style may be identifiable to a particular time period.
The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers caused by writing a document resting on top of a “wet” transferable ink. Home Dating of Documents.
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Long before the incredibly diverse selection of fountain pen inks and manufacturers we currently know existed, there was a much smaller variety available. The number of manufacturers could be counted on two hands and colors were more or less limited to very subtle variations of blue, black, red, green, purple and brown. Still, there is a certain charm and satisfaction to using vintage fountain pen inks, especially if you also use vintage fountain pens.
Collecting vintage fountain pen ink can be enjoyable and rewarding. Years back, I actually wrote and self-published a book about vintage inks. In fact, most of the text in this article comes from that book.
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Identifying Vintage Fountain Pen Ink Bottles and Boxes
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The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings. Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time.
Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines. Forensic Paper Examination. Gerald M. LaPorte, M. He trained with and served as the Chief Research Forensic Chemist with the United States Secret Service and was responsible for maintaining the largest known forensic collection of writing inks in the world.